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135 Adams Street, Chicago, Illinois
New York Office, 71 Nassau Street
'TT'HE Raymond Systems of Con-
A crete Piling are fully protected
by Letters Patent of the United States
and of all the principal foreign coun-
tries. Any infringements will be
prosecuted to the fullest extent of the
The Raymond System of
The introduction of concrete piles marked a new era in
foundation construction. No argument was needed to con-
vince the thorough Engineer that a practical system of concrete
piling, which could be depended upon for durability and
strength, and at a cost much less than that of caissons, would
have a wide field of usefulness.
The first and only practical system to be tested in this
country was invented by Mr. A. A. Raymond, and was demon-
strated in April, 1901. The first actual work was performed in
June of the same year and justified all the claims made by the
inventor. Since that time the Raymond System has forged
ahead, reaching new fields and making friends everywhere in
the engineering world.
Every Engineer and Architect who has carefully studied the
subject has recognized the value and superiority of Raymond
piles. Those who have had occasion to use them speak unhesi-
tatingly in their favor. We are pleased to refer to any and all
who have used the system, knowing full well that only satis-
factory and efficient work has been performed.
Since the previous edition of our catalogue was published
many thousand Raymond piles have been placed by the Com-
pany and its representatives, and the work has been distributed
over the greater part of the United States. Many new and
difficult conditions have been encountered, but in every case
the work has been accomplished with entire success.
The great success of Raymond piles is due to the correct-
ness of the fundamental principle upon which these piles are
based: "A shell or form for every pile." It has been dem-
onstrated beyond a reasonable doubt that to be certain of a
perfect concrete pile under any and all conditions, there must
be a form which remains in the ground and protects the con
crete until it has firmly set. In the Raymond System this form
is of a size and shape best suited to secure the greatest possible
bearing value. The form (which is of sheet steel) is driven by
means of a collapsible steel core until it is practically impos-
sible to secure further penetration. The core is then with-
drawn, leaving the shell (which is of sufficient strength to re-
tain its size and shape as driven ) in the ground to act as a
mould for the concrete. The shell is inspected and rilled with
thoroughly mixed Portland cement concrete, which is care-
fully tamped in the shell as it is filled. (See page E
We feel that we cannot too strongly urge the importance
of this protecting form. in some isolated instances a
perfect pile could be obtained without the use of a form. But
in ninety per cent, of the cases whevt concrete piles are needed,
a form is absolutely essential to complete success.
Our facilities for handling work have been and are con-
stantly being increased by the addition of new equipment,
which is widely distributed throughout the United States, and
we are, therefore, in a position to handle work at any point
promptly and satisfactorily.
We invite a careful study of the details of our system as
shown in this catalogue, of the demonstrations of the superi-
ority of Raymond piles, and of the testimonials of those who
have made practical use of them.
Raymond Concrete Piles are usually placed by the pile
core method, which may be briefly described as follows: A
collapsible steel pile core, of the desired size and shape, is en-
cased in a thin, closely fitting sheet steel shell. The core and
shell are driven to the required depth by means of a pile driver
(preferably fitted with a steam hammer). The core is so con-
structed that when the driving is finished, it is collapsed and
loses contact with the shell, so that it is easily withdrawn, leav-
ing the shell or casing in the ground to act as a mould for the
concrete and to protect it from back pressure, which would
distort the pile, and from the admixture of foreign matter
which would destroy the bond of the concrete.
When the core is withdrawn, the shell is filled with care-
fully mixed Portland cement concrete, which is carefully
tamped during the filling process.
Fig. 3. Pile core collapsed and partly withdrawn from the shell. The
shell remains in the ground and forms a mould for the concrete, assuring a
Fig. 4. A completed Raymond Concrete Pile, without reinforcement.
points of Superiority
Raymond Concrete Piles are superior to any other concrete
piles for the following reasons:
(i) A shell or form is used for every pile. This form can
be easily inspected before the concrete is deposited and assures
perfection in each pile.
(2) Raymond piles are of a size and shape to develop the
greatest possible bearing value.
(3) They can be easily reinforced.
(4) They can be more rapidly placed than any other con-
(5) There is no driving on the concrete and therefore no
possibility of fracture.
We are pleased to note the growing appreciation among
Engineers and Architects of the importance of the shell or
form, the employment of which, to protect the concrete from
the back pressure of the material penetrated and to exclude
all foreign matter, is the distinctive feature of the Raymond
System. It is now almost universally recognized that the use
of this shell is of the utmost importance and cannot be too
greatly emphasized. It is the feature which makes the Ray-
mond pile the ONE concrete pile that can be depended
upon absolutely to meet the most severe requirements. It is
ABSOLUTE CERTAINTY versus UNCERTAINTY. It is
WORKING IN THE LIGHT OF DAY versus WORKING
IN THE DARK.
No careful Engineer or Architect will permit green concrete
to be placed in quicksand, silt, soft mud or any porous or un-
stable material without the protection of a form. It is of still
greater importance that it be protected when placed below the
surface of the ground where the pressure is often very great.
Attempts have been made to construct concrete piles in
place in the ground without using a protecting form, and while
in a few cases, where the soil was particularly good, no bad
results have been apparent, in all too many other cases such
attempts have been disastrous and have resulted in heavy
pecuniary loss as well as loss of time. It is not enough to know
that a quantity of concrete equal to the cubic capacity of the
hole made has been deposited therein; for it has been dem-
onstrated by excavating piles so made that they are often of
widely varying diameter, due to the unequal pressure of the
different strata of soil displaced— the diametric measurements
of such piles varying in some cases from three feet to five or
six inches. This variation, which in most soils is inevitable
when no form is used as a protection against the unequal pres-
sures, is likely to be still further accentuated by the driving of
a closely contiguous pile. Failure to secure uniform results
cannot occur where a shell or protecting form is used, as this
shell is of sufficient strength to withstand the soil pressure
when the core is withdrawn and, when filled with concrete, to
withstand the additional pressure caused by driving adjacent
Gbc Capcrimi Shape.
Our varied experience has confirmed the contention that
for most foundation work large, tapering piles are the best and
most economical. Where piling is necessary the soil is usually
poor— often the best stratum is that on or near the surface.
In most soils large, tapering concrete piles, 18" or 20" in diam-
eter at the top and 6" or 8" in diameter at the point, are very
much more effective than straight piles of greater length; par-
ticularly where a comparatively hard stratum is underlaid by
softer material. In New York City, 25-foot tapering piles were
found to be equal to 40-foot piles of uniform diameter. At
Salem, Mass., 20-foot piles, tapering from 20" at the top to 6"
at the bottom, developed greater bearing value than 35-foot
piles with less taper and larger point. In New Orleans, 20-foot
piles of the size just mentioned were found to be equal to 50
and 60-foot wooden piles, which, while large, were nearly
straight. At Boston, a pile 20 feet in length, 20" at the top,
and 6" at the bottom, while it required a less total number of
blows to drive, offered more final resistance than a 20-foot pile
of the same length, 18" at the top and 13" at the point. The
explanation of this is simple and obvious. It lies in the fact
that in the case of a tapered pile the load is more uniformly
distributed throughout Us entire length, while in that of a
straight pile it is largely concentrated upon the limited area of
the point. Thus, where a pile penetrates the hard stratum
lying near the surface and into the softer underlying material,
the bearing value of this upper stratum is fully developed by
the large, tapering wedge-shaped pile, while it would be almost
lost with the pile straight, or nearly so.
Ease of "Reinforcement
The reinforcement of concrete piles by steel rods is some-
times found to be desirable for certain uses. This is always a
simple matter with the Raymond System. Whether the shell
or casing, which is always used, is jetted into place or driven,
the insertion of the reinforcing material is done when the
concrete is put in, and is simple, is in plain sight, and requires
no unusual skill.
Saving of Ctmc*
The question of time is always an important one in build-
ing construction. Raymond piles can unquestionably be placed
more rapidly than any other concrete piles, as when the shell
is driven the core is easily and quickly withdrawn, and the
driver turned to drive another shell while the one already
driven is being filled. As compared with wooden piles the
economy of time is very considerable, as a much smaller num-
ber of piles is required, and the time required to do the expen-
sive excavating, sheeting and pumping, as well as to put in
additional masonry, is saved.
As rapidity of work is always more or less governed by
local conditions, such as the character of the soil to be pene-
trated, and the length and spacing of the piles, it is not possible
to give accurate figures suitable to all conditions of work.
Depending upon these conditions, the number that can be put
in with one driver may vary from ten to forty per day.
Numerous attempts have been made to build and afterward
drive the actual concrete pile. But these attempts have met
with only a limited success. Such piles require in their manu-
facture heavy reinforcement with steel rods, which makes them
expensive, and when driven they cannot stand a hard blow of
the hammer without fracture. Under the Raymond System
there is no driving 01 the concrete. A steel pile core, carrying
a sheet-metal shell, is driven as described on page 5; the core
is then withdrawn, and the shell afterward filled with concrete,
which sets or hardens in place.
As Raymond Concrete Piles are made where they are used,
their cost varies, depending upon the cost of transporting
machinery to the site, the availability of material, the character
of the soil to be penetrated, the number and spacing of the piles,
and the general labor conditions of each locality.
While concrete piles necessarily cost more per lineal foot
than wooden piling, the economy in the use of concrete piles as
against wooden piles is very considerable. It is due, first, to
the much smaller number of concrete piles required to carry
the necessary load, one concrete pile having, on account of its
great size and taper, practically the carrying capacity of three
ordinary wooden piles of the same length ; and, secondly, to
the great saving of excavation, sheeting, pumping and ma-
sonry so generally required where wooden piles are used.
The illustrations on pages 12, 13 and 14 show very fully the
As to the economy in the use of Raymond Concrete Piles,
we refer to the letters of Architects contained in this catalogue.
In the work done for the United States Naval Academy at An-
napolis, a saving of more than $27,000 was made over the
estimated cost of a foundation using wooden piles according
to the original plan. For a detailed statement showing the
comparative cost of wood and concrete pile foundations for
this work, see the article by Mr. W. R. Harper, reproduced on
the last pages of this catalogue.
C0 CONrR S |?T N |r °m, r Ordinary wooden piles average about 12 inches in diametnr at the top
with woonFN p.. p I h ? e m square inches of surface - Concre1e P j,es - 20 inches -
WITH WOODEN PILE d.ameter at the top. have 314 square inches of surface, or 2.77 times
three or ft.„r S-^U- f that of the wooden pile. The taper of a wooden pile is only about
The ,h V .1 / * r ° m " , 0t1 ° m - WhHe tKe Uper ° f thC C00Creie P i,e is from 10 to 14 inches.
oiJ Thr«h'l U * g 'T 3 fa "* reDresen ' a "° n 0^ what may be saved by the use of concrete
■ nches Ih?| Z T nC I P ' leS ; "^ 2 ° i0CheS '" dia ™^ ^ve a bearing surface of 942 square
beards u rfJ rZ?° ? ''"' '"" 12 mCheS la diameter wh ' ch is a fair average . have a
w^^jl square .nches. Note the additional concrete requ.red on top of fhe wooden
slrv to d -veThl M e ' 0W r teHine *° mSUPe their P^ ma «ncy. It is also frequently neces-
sary to dnve sheet p.l.ng around the trenches in order to make the excavation to water line
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Comparison of t>eafc Surfaces
On account of its great taper the Raymond Concrete Pile
has a marked advantage in point of economy over all other
piles, whether concrete or wood. The following comparison
of the head surfaces of piles of different diameters will be of
One 20-inch Raymond Pile .314.16 sq. in.
One 18-inch Raymond Pile 254.47 " "
One 10-inch pile 78.54 " "
Four 10-inch piles . 314.16 " "
One 12-inch pile . 113.09 " "
Three 12-inch piles 339-27 " "
One 14-inch pile 153-93 " "
Two 14-inch piles 307.86 " "
One 16-inch pile 201.06 " "
Three 16-inch piles 603.18 " "
Two 20-inch piles 628.32 " M
It will be noted that a 20-inch Raymond pile has 314.16
square inches head surface, or the same head surface as FOUR
10-INCH PILES, while a 12-inch pile has but 113.09 square
inches, a 14-inch pile but 153.93 square inches, and a 16-inch
pile but 201.06 square inches. It will be seen further that three
12-inch piles have but 339.27 square inches of head surface, or
only 25.11 square inches more than one 20-inch Raymond pile;
that two 14-inch piles have but 307.86 square inches, or 6.30
LESS than one 20-inch Raymond pile; and that three 16-inch
piles have but 603.18 square inches, or 25.14 square inches
LESS head surface than two 23-inch Raymond piles.
The dimensions of the standard sizes of concrete piles
placed by the pile core method are as follows:
20 ft. long, 20 inches at the top and 6 inches at the point
25 " " 20 8 '
30 " 20 8
35 " " 18 8 M •
40 " " 18 8
Where rock or hardpan is overlaid by a stratum of soft or
unstable material and a pile must be considered as a column,
it is. of course, desirable that the point be larger than where
the pile depends upon frictional resistance to carry the load.
For such uses we have designed cores more nearly straight
and are, therefore, prepared to accomplish the best possible re-
sults under . ndition which may be encountered.
For all ore ^ndation work, where it is not required
to go to rock or hardpan. the experience of the Raymond Con-
crete Pile Company has demonstrated that it is preferable to
use the 20-foot length, and 1: necessary to increase the number
Of piles, rather than to increase their length, the shorter pile
having a greater bearing value per lineal
foot of piling than the longer pile. Under such conditions three
er bearing capacity than two 30-foot
We are often asked to state just what load may safely be
placed on a Raymond Concrete Pile. It is manifestly impos-
sible to furmsh a table accurately showing the carrying capa-
city of piles, as the soil is not exactly the same in any two
places. All tests which we have made, or which have been
made by Architects and Engineers on our work, indicate, how-
ever, that from two to three times as much can be placed upon
a Raymond Concrete Pile as upon an ordinary wooden pile of
the same length under the same conditions. The article in the
Engineering Record of March 4, 1905, by Mr. Walter R.
Harper, Chief Inspector of the work at the new Naval Acad-
emy at Annapolis, which is reproduced on the last pages of this
catalogue, bears on this point.
Obviously, it is not possible to make fixed or standard prices
for Raymond Concrete Piles, as the cost varies widely accord-
ing to the conditions in each particular case; and so necessary
is a knowledge of such conditions in making estimates, that
we refrain from giving any figures here, even in a general way.
We are always glad, however, to furnish plans for foundations
with Raymond Concrete Piles, upon receipt of the general
foundation plans, with complete data as to soil conditions,
loads to be carried, etc. We will also, upon request, send a
representative anywhere at any time, at our own expense, to
figure on prospective work.
The necessary equipment for constructing concrete piles
by the Raymond Pile Core Method consists of the following:
i. A strongly built pile driver, having a spread between
the leaders of not less than 22 1 2 ". and preferably fitted with
turn-table, extension leaders and steam hammer.
2. A pile core of the size and length necessary for the work
3. Sheet steel for making shells — usually No. 20 gauge, al-
though No. 18 gauge is sometimes used.
l. A heavy cornice brake for forming the sheet steel, to-
gether with the usual complement of shears, mallets, etc., for
cutting and seaming the same.
Specifications for Kapmonfc Concrete piles.
We are frequently requested by Architects and Engineers
who wish to be certain of securing satisfactory concrete pile
work, to submit a specification for Raymond piles. If "Ray-
mond Concrete Piles" are called for, this is, of course, suffi-
cient. If, however, it is for any reason undesirable to name
them specifically, the following points should be covered:
The use of a shell or form which remains in the ground,
which is of sufficient strength and rigidity to withstand the
back pressure of the soil after the driving form has been with-
drawn, and which can be easily inspected to ascertain its con-
dition before the concrete is placed in it.
No driving on the concrete.
Proportions for concrete : One part good Portland cement,
three parts sharp sand, and five parts crushed stone or gravel
which will pass a 1 : 2 " ring.
Concrete to be thoroughly mixed and carefully tamped in
the shells as they are rilled.
Among those who have used Raymond Concrei are
the following :
an, Archil ^ Q
rkins, Architect, Marquetl , ag o.
Vv. a. Otis, Arch m si . Chicago.
g, Architect, to Wall Si . Nev
A. C. Cunningham, Civil Engineer, U S N M .
ton, D. C.
& R. M. Shankland, Engine* i, The Rookery. Ch
ton & Miller, Architects, Hartford Bl I lgo .
Richards, McCarty A Bulford, Architects, Ruggery i
irence Ewald, Architect, 417 Pin< Mo.
J. Yard, Chiei Engineer, Den ,.. n _
Esenwein & Johnson. Architects. Ellicott Sq., Buffalo, N V
Jenney. Mundie A Jensen. Architects. New York
W. H. Lester. Engineer, Guli Bag Co., New Orlea
MacKenzie & Goldstein. Architects, New OrU
P. A. Burden. Engineer, 19 W. 34th St., New York C
I abb. Cook A Willard, Archta . New
P. Royce, Vice-Pres. Maiden A Meli n Co.,
Ballinger & Perrot. Architects, Twelfth and Chestnut Sts.,
Barnett, Haynes & Barnett. Architects. St. Louis, Mo.
John Latenser, Architect, Bee Building, Omaha, Nebr.
Wm. Garstang, Sup. M. P. Big Four Ry., Indianapolis, Ind.
A. F. Groves, Architect, St. Louis, Mo.
Chas. S. Churchill, Chief Engineer, N. & W. Ry., Roa-
Chas. R. Coates, Engr. Belknap Hdw. & Mfg. Co., Louis
Wm. F. Twining. Chief Engr. Philadelphia Rapid Transit
Cass Gilbert, Architect, New York City.
H. P. Padley, Engineer. C. St. P. M. & O. Ry., St. Paul,
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. Cincinnati, Ohio.
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. St. Louis, Mo.
Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co.. Cincinnati, Ohio.
South Buffalo Ry. Co., Buffalo, N. Y.
Abbot-Gamble Co.. 32 Broadway, New York City.
Isaac A. Hopper & Son. Johnston Bldg., New York City.
F. L. Dame, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y.
B. E. Holden, Architect. 175 Dearborn St., Chicago.
W. H. Wells, Engr. of Const. Southern Ry., Washington
City Water Department. St. Louis, Mo.
F. S. Howell. Civil Engineer, Ellis Island, N. Y.
West Jersey & Sea Shore R. R. (Pennsylvania System),
Westville, N. J.
Raymond P.ie Core md Shell \ driven for every pile and left
in the ground to form a perfect mould for the Concrete.
Raymond Pile Core encased in shell, ready to be driven.
Raymond Pill e will be withdraw!
Shell Bill , crete Thl shell make bit to sec that
the hole >ne, thus insuring a perfect
JOHN PEIRCE COMPANY
BROADWAY CHAMBERS 27/ BROADWAY
new york May 24,1905.
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams Street,
In regard to the concrete piles, which you
drove for us in the foundation of the Academic Group
of buildings at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis,
Maryland, we are very willing to bear testimony to the
saving in labor, time and money due to the substituting
of concrete piles for wooden piles in these f oTindations.
The original plans called for 2200 wooden
piles cut off below low water with a capping of concrete -
about 3300 cubic yards- to bring the foundations to grade.
To get down to the low water level required sheet
piling, shoring and pumping and the excavation of nearly
5000 cubic yards of earth.
By substituting your concrete piles the work
was reduced to driving 850 concrete piles, excavating
1000 cubic yards of earth and placing 1000 cubic yards
A comparison of quan+itieB will give at a
glance the saving in time and money achieved. The piles
stood the severe test of the U. S. Government officials
without the slightest indication of failure.
The foundations as built are eminently
satisfactory to us, to the Architect and to the TJ. S.
John Peirce Company.
(O^uiX^ 2 ^^^
A trench of ^y-ond Concrete Piles for the wall of the Crunden-Marti:
woodenware Company's warehouse, St, Louis, Mo.
z - -
[) J* <
MAURAN. RUSSELL c GARDEN.
margy St Louis
May 23rd, 1905.
Raymond Concrete Pile Company
135 Adans Street, Chicago.
We take great pleasure in expressing to you our apprecia-
tion of the utility, effectiveness and structural character and
quality of your concrete pile work Installed at the Crunden-Mar-
tin Woodenware Company's new plant in this city. We have done
considerable pile work in St. Louis and have found nothing which
so thoroughly fits local conditions a, your concrete pile.
We take pleasure m expressing also our appreciation of
your courtesy and willingness to assist in overcoming difficul-
ties. We deem the use of your piles effects a considerable sav-
ing over otner similar forms of construction and the entire eye-
tem has our commendation.
Very truly yours,
ARCH ITE CTS
-•* YORK urC HUII.OINO
171 LASALLE STREET
Chic ago, Vay 22,1905
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.
Complying with your verbal request of today, we
take pleasure in expressing our views in writing, of the concrete
piles at the Klotz Bldg: 7/hen we first considered foundations for
this building, we were faced with the bad condition of the soil
which was Y^ry wet and soft and contained considerable quick sand.
Inasmuch as it was unnecessary to put in a basement, we felt that
it would be economy to use your concrete piles, which was done with
economy and satisfactory results.
— . °
-RICHARDS \v CARTy-V BVLFORD-
May 19th, 1905.
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams St. ,
+~~* Replyin- to your inquiry of the 13th, would aav, it af-
in 2«^ U f Ple f Ur L t0 / tate ' tJiat the concrete'piling you* put
In for us under the foundation of the Kid ridge & Hifpins
S2t?SSl; ft : ar ? h0UM at Narietta > Ohio > has p?o T en perfectly
satisfactory in every respect.
this h»iiH?nrrrt*S 0nfront * ed W ? en We beGan thR construction of
rat^ on ?<?? ^ th a I 6ry serious Proposition. It was lo-
cated on filled ground over what had formerly been a swamp.
™.,?° U * n0t * U f! wo , od ? illn S on account of the fact that we
could not get it below the water level. After careful in-
llllHt XOn T C0 ;? 1 S ded t0 ^ your piling and the resul? has
£???^ £f nely satl3fac J°ry. We consider that the use of ^our
ilh«SJJT d U8 f l6a3t $30 °° in concret e work. The build-
ing has been in use for several months, is heaviir loaded and
there is not the least indication of a' set tlemlnt? in anfp^t
»»h J*o a iX 0Ue ? ^ 0Ut ° ne haIf of the fining is on piling
and the other half on solid ground outside of "the limits of
Sat Jiin e v, a 3 + i% SWa !? P Vi SOl i' We conRider ^iB even a better
test than had the foundation been uniform over the entire area.
f<e shall bear you in mind for future work and if
to do^so 6 ° r any service to you at an - v tira © we would be glad
Yours very truly,
Richards, Mccarty & btjlford.
Statler Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y. Esenwein & Johnson. Architects. Built
on Raymond Concrete Piles. See letter on page 39.
ESENWEIN A JOHNSON
BUFFALO. N. Y,
Sept. 29, 1906,
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams Street,
Gent lemon ;-
It gives us great pleasure to answer your letter of
You have given great satisfaction to the architects,
to the owner and to the general contractors in performing your work
Yo^r system is without any question an excellent one, and
we would gladly recomrneni the same to any one you refer to us.
Sfou had to work under a great disadvantage here, owing to
shaky buildings in the neighborhood, and the nature of the ground,
and many other things, and we thank you, therefore, that you have
not tried to take advantage of the situation and charge any extras,
although you have lost a great deal of tisw in waiting.
• - bL
> = _
v. G ■-
Power station of the Union Electric Company, Dubuque Stack rests
upon fifty 20-ft. Raymond Concrete Piles. 518 Raymond Piles
under the building. E. C. & R. M. Shankland, Engineers.
ti r» r •
WtousliV4>.\}M l %»
\$VI\LiKP KSiAAti \OX
'///' ,/fAs// //,„, Oct. 2
• i Concrete File Co. ,
I have copy of letter from Gulf Bag Co. New Orleans,
in which you ask for testimonial regarding your tapering pile/ J
take pleasure In saying that we believe your pile is far superior
to any other concrete piles, we also, believe it is the best pile
for New Orleans soil generally. The large taper of your pile gives
the best possible form for obtaining the carrying capacity required,
and we recoiaraend it in preference to all others.
b r =f
as,, ra . s*
\ ^ ■ "SH
WALTER F BALUNGER
EMILE G PERROT
E.i.bJ.iK«t 1878 b, t ;
i J CEIS5INCER AND HALES
EDWARD M H-XLE_-
Sptcialists m iht Drugging
#/ Industrial Plants. Rein-
forced Ctntrttt Firr-Prmf
BALLINGER & PERROT
«— — ■ FORMERLY HALES Ac BALUNGER — — ~~~-. »- .
!3rci;ttrct6 anfc gnginrrrs I
Southwest Cor. Chestnut and Twelfth Streets Jm Both Phone?
Philadelphia. sept. 27, 1906.
Raymond Concrete Pile Company,
135 Adarr.s St., Chicago, 111.
V?e congratulate you upon the promptness with which you
have executed your work of putting In shout thirty -four hundred
lineal feet of Raymond Concrete Files for the foundations of the
Laundry BjiMing for G. L. Hooper and Son, Salem, Mass. For con-
ditions such as existed at this building, where good bearing soil
was at a considerable distance below the su rface, we believe that
piles of this type are the most economical and durable for the
purpose that ould be used.
*»-8* WALL BTP
st. paul Feb. 27, 1906.
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams 3t . ,
taring your letter .f February 6th, in reference to Raymond
concrete piles used in the Essex Building, this city, would say that
they have served the purpose admirably. I consider them very useful
in a case such as ours where the ground is soft and the water level
considerably below the bottom of footings. The saving of time and ex-
pense was no small Hem, their form and size making fewer piles nec-
essary and thereby reducing the danger to adjacent buildings, some of
which were in rather a shaky condition. I am glad of the experience
obtained in their use and would use them again under similar circum-
; Gilbert ^^^
Boiler House and Stack for Maiden & Melrose Gas Light Co., Maiden,
Mass. Built on Raymond Concrete Piles.
Residence of Duncan Joy, Esq., St. Louis. Mo. Laurence Ewald.
Architect. Sec letter on page 59.
17 P>Nl ST«WCT
St. Louis, Oct. 11th, 06.
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
125 Adams 3t . ,
The concrete pile foundation which you put in the
residences in Lenox Place of Duncan Joy and Lee Benoist are sat
isfactory in every way. *hey cost only half as much as the con
Crete or stone foundations carried to solid earth of similar
residences in the same location.
Residence of Lee Benoist, Esq., St. Louis. Mo Laurence Ewald,
Architect. See letter on page 59,
A mi ku an Chishki) S tove ( o
( Kl MlllldHAMrKA.VDl'AVINt.MtTIHUI §
Street Paving Contractors
92 L*. SallC Street
November 19th, 1900 ,
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams St., City.
With reference to your inquiry aB to the ooncrete dock put in
by your Company at our plant early last Winter, we are pleased to say
that we are thoroughly satisfied with it in every particular.
In our opinion it is vastly superior to the heaviest wooden
piling because It combines at least equal strength with imperishability.
The work was well executed and has fulfilled both our
expectations and your representations.
Very truly yours,
AMEPICAN CRUSHED S70TJE COMPANY.
S^y S( '"A—— - •^President.
II r M i
United States Naval
WALTER R. HARPER
Inspector in Charge of the Academic Group, U. S.
[Reprinted from the I '. March 4. 1935.
Concrete Piles at the United States
RPER, Inspector in charge
After the value of an efficient navy
was made evident by the war with
Spain, Congress made appropriations,
from time to time, amounting to $10,-
000,000 to rebuild the Naval Academy
at Annapolis, 'Sid. The plans of Mr.
Ernest Flagg, architect, of New York,
were selected for the new academy.
These plans contemplated a new
wall, armory, seamanship building,
midshipmen's quarters, gymnasium,
hospital, chapel, officers' quarters, offi-
cers' mess building, steam engineering
building, power house and academic
demic group, the foundat
consists of the library building, of g
ite and brick.
ith a central tower about
140 ft. in height containing a
dom< nomical v. 1 1
side of the libr
the pi d chemistry building
on the other the academic
brick and nearly of th<
the largest buildings in the
country devoted to educational pur-
The soil on the site of the physics and
chemistry buili f such a nature
that piles were not required, but they
were under both the library
and academic buildings, a portion of
this land : - een reclaimed from
the Severn River by filling with sand
and mud thr»-<
Certain amounts of the appropriation
When the bids for the a ^roui>
the lowest, that of John
Pierc* rk, was found 1
exceed the $1,500,000 allotted for the
ip, and some method had to be re-
and still preser neral plans of
Ceo ^ j^j.
000. ' d will
u ith wait r. it
the bi Wit h coi
[or a concrete beam thick enough f o
carry the weight of the building.
This difference in thicl con-
ings i- well illustrated
n oi the footings of the academic
building v ith w i m >d piles and the
section as redesigned and built with
concrete piles. This sa> ng in excava-
tion and footings depends upon the
height of the building above mean low
water. At the Naval Academy the rise
and fall of the tide in the Severn River
i- very slight, consequently the build-
ings have been placed only a few feet
in low water. Notwithstand-
ing that the cost per lineal foot for con-
crete piles far exceeds that of wood
pile-. a bout four times as much.
the saving in the entire foundation by
their use will surprise the uninitiated,
as will be seen by a glance at the cuts
In the accompanying diagrams
section E-F shows the footing of the
connection between the library and aca-
demic building as designed by Mr.
Flagg for wood pile-. Another sketch
shows the same section, G-H in the dia
gram, as built with concrete piles. The
depth of footing on this section was
reduced from ; ft. to 2 ft. 8 in., and the
width on the bottom from 12 ft. 1 in. to
5 ft. 2 in. The area of the cross-s'
K - * i Concrete
vertical Section E-F
j Megnlow Water
vert cai Section CrH
was reduced from 58 to 12 sq. ft. In the
plan of the wood piles under the library
r there are 202 piles in a rectangle
38 ft. 5 1-3 in. square. The plan of the
same tower foundations with 84
crete piles has footings 8 ft. 2 in. wide.
With wood piles n will be noticed
nd footings extend over
the entue rectangle, while with con-
piles i Ik- piles and footings are
"iil\ 8 ft. 2 in. wide and directly under
the walls of the tower. The depth 31
the footing was reduced by the use of
concrete piles from 10 ft. 1 1-2 in. to 4
it. 7 1-3 in. Twenty-seven 12-in. 31 1-2-
tb. I-beams were done away with.
The following reductions on the
foundations of the two buildings were
made by the use of concrete piles: 2,193
wood piles were replaced by 885 con-
crete piles; 4.542 yd. of excavation
reduced to 1,038 yd., saving 3.504
yd., and 3.250 yd. of concrete footings
were reduced to 986 vd., saving
With wood piles, after excavating
mean low water, shoring and pumping
would have been necessary in aU
trenches, and this saving was estimated
at $4,000. A schedule of changes show-
ing the saving by the use of concrete
en in Table I.
Table I.— Comparative cost of v
\\|. I 0K( KKTE PILES.
• . piles il - - 335.50
1,542 n •• .40
50 •' concrete " 8.00
Shoring tnd pumping
piles .. a1 $20 00 $17 L00.00
l,038«u v. I exc'vtn 10 415.00
■ concrete 3.00 7,888.00
Shoring and pumping
,.,.t. $25,4 03.00
Difference in cos1 $27,458.18
The saving in the cost of foundations
by the use of concrete piles was $27,-
458 [8, or more than half of the original
of the foundations as de-i.
w ith wood piles.
The estimate of length of wood piles
was taken from the length of wood piles
driven in the marine engineering build-
in-, a structure about 200 ft. from the
library site. Wood piles would have been
required 40 ft. in length at a cost of 20
$q>5/'_ __ sinaiu
I7'2§" >| ^V-- 1 -- f7'2§* ihen
/ l i t j ^-" ■ ^ ^ ther
\ " * \ 'J are
\ . 4 . ' f-lr drawn up
-\3eams around the
b< en on
driven 30 ft. below mean low
r. which at 5 1
1 an average cost of $9.50 per pile.
For the estimate for 1
was assumed that the entire site \
• an elevation of 7 ft. above mean low
r. which is an avei
The longest concrete pile driven
29.7 ft., but owing to the solid nature
of the soil at the southerly end of the
library building, where shorter piles
were used, the average length was 16
ft., and the cost of the concrete piles
was taken at $20 per pile.
The concrete pile selected was that
of the Raymond Concrete Pile Co., of
is conical in
ning from 6
in. in diam-
eter at the
bottom to 20
in. at the top.
■nd is compacted and a much shorter
pile can be used with this style than
with a cylindrical pile. The difference
in bearing power between a conical and
cylindrical pile was shown by an e>
ment tried on this work at the Naval
Academy. A Raymond pile core tapered
from 6 in. at the point to 20 in. at the
head, was driven 19 ft. until the penetra-
tion under two blows from a 2.100-fb
hammer falling 20 ft. was 7-8 in. A wood
pile 9 1-2 in. at the point and 11 in. .
head and having the same length. 19 ft.,
as the conical pile, had a penetration of
5 5-i6 in. under two blows of the same
hammer, falling 20 ft. This pih
driven after the concrete pile and a
2 ft. from it. thus showing the compara-
tive bearing power between a conical
and a cylindrical pile of the same lei
These piles of the Raymond sty)
driven by the use of a hollow
6 in. in diameter at the point and 2
at the head. The . ,\ on th]S
the core are spread
and held in place during the drivin
>re is held b
leads of the pile driver by -teel pi
ti< 'I to 11- top, winch form guides to
slide in tin heads. The top of the
is protected by a hard wood cap
■ h sets in a cavity made for n
This block receive- th< the
hammer and has to row
time to tune.
The she< | on
rork in an extra heavy cornice brake
machine, and are made in 8-1:
with locked seam-. Th<
telescoped, the point of
raised about 8 ft. and 11
■coin Low Wafer / -
vertical Section A- 8
core by a
engine . n
Two drivers were used on the work at
the Naval Academy, one with a 2,240 lb
drop hammer and the
hammer of the Vulcan m
3,000 tbs. The steam hammer
rapidh. I partly dm |
that the steam hammer v, ,j n
a turn-table, and was able to turn
circle by n- own power. I
vided with an extension inch
the core could be ra ,\ [f
in a trench below I
firsl piles were driven until tw<
blows with the -team hammei
n of 1 in. Tin- nr ] to
on ill- 51 and
perifetn e j gnl
1 ration of 1 in
\\ h< nil.
mer was brought on tl m-
ns had to be mad< the
blows of the two hammers, so that the
cores would be driven to the same pene
tration, to give an equal bearing for all
parts of the building. A c< >re was dm en
with the steam hammer until the pene-
tration with eight blows was i in. This
core was detached from the leads of the
steam hammer and left standing in the
ground; then the driver with the drop
hammer was moved up and four blows
from the 2,240-fb. hammer falling 20 ft.
was f, >und to drive
Wh- 8'2" r
Mean tow Wot+er
it 1 in., or a p< ne
tration oi 1-4 in.
for a blow. As
eight blows of the
steam hammer in
drove the core 1
in., and the con-
reached that one blow of the drop ham-
mer was equivalent to two blows of the
The tests wen- made by loading the
piles, and it was estimated that all piles
with the same penetration as the test
piles would have the same bearing
power. A 17 1-2 ft. pile driven with a 20-
ft. core, 6 in. in diameter at the point and
20 in. at the head, having a penetration
of 1 in. under twenty blows of the steam
hammer, was loaded with 41 tons. Lev-
els were taken during the loading and
at intervals for one month. At the end
of the month the total settlement was
0.007 ft., or 3-32 in.
Another 28 1-2-ft. pile driven with a
30-ft. core, 6 in. at the point and 20 in.
at the head, had a penetration of 5-16 in.
under ten blows with the steam hammer.
This pile was loaded with 42 tons. Lev-
els were taken during the loading, show-
ing a settlement of 0.002 ft., and at
intervals for one month, showing no
additional settlement. This pile was
driven outside of the old sea wall in that
portion of the land reclaimed from the
Severn River, which had been filled with
sand and mud three years previously.
A test pile was driven at the northerly
end of the building on that part of the
Concrete Piles VTw
Vertical Section C-D
gn »und reclaimed from the Severn River.
This pile was driven with a 30-ft. core a
distance of 22 1-2 ft., having a penetration
of r in. for eight blows with the steam
hammer. The diameter of the pile was
6 in. at the point and 16 in. at the head.
It was loaded with 41 tons and had a
settlement of 0.007 ft., or 3-32 in. Ten
days later it showed a total settlement
of 0.009 ft. The load was then increased
to 45 tons, with no additional settle-
ment, and finally it
was increased to
66 1-2 tons, show-
in -j; a total settle-
ment of 0.035 ft.,
or less than 7-16
in. There was no
ment when the
load was removed
six days iater.
Table No. 2 gives the elevations 1
on this pile during the month the test
was being made.
It will be noticed that the pile rose
about 1-8 in. when the load was re-
moved. This difference was at first sup-
posed to be an error in the level work,
but was checked several times, giving
the same result. This led to a study of
past records on piles of other systems,
and it was found that this rising after re-
moving the test load had occurred
piles in various parts of the country. It
was assumed to be due to the elastic na-
ture of the soil.
In preparing the pile for a test a spike
was grouted in the concrete top, then
two double 12-in. I-beams were placed
on top of the pile, leaving room enough
between them for a level rod to be held
on the spike. On the I-beam a platform
was made of I2xi2-in. beams 12 ft. long,
projecting on either side. This platform
was loaded with chain, leaving a hole in
the center for the level rod. An eleva-
tion was taken on the spike before load-
ing, and while the load was being ap-
plied, also at intervals for a month.
These elevations were taken from a
nearby bench mark.
The concrete was a 1:3:7 mixture
with Catskill Portland cement, sand and
1-8 to 3-4-in. gravel. The average
neat cement Government I
Twenty-four hours, 308 I
ft).; 28 days, 745 lb.
Table 2.— 1 1 Ph.e, ao
Concrete mixture, 1:3 3
tile head, 16
>et 1 Ground
filled with sand and mud in 1901.
Load, Since la.^i
Date, 1904. fcona reading. — — Toto
Se P i 1, noon. 21 - 0.005 0X105 ft -
5ep1 ]. 5 00 p in 31 ii.iiun 0.005
8ep< 3 31 —0.002 0.007
Sept. 14. .-31 - oooo o.ooT
.... ,41 - 0.01 (107
Ki pi 26 .... U 0.002 008
-. pi 28, l l:30a m. 50 - 0.004 0.013
8. p1 29 31 - 0.004 0.021
Oct 1 863 0.010 0.081
Oct. 4 8-035
66!*- 8 1
' |6 Hi
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